Sophia Omotola Omidiji has reiterated her ambition to play for Nigeria’s Senior Women’s National Team, the Super Falcons.In 2015, the US-born Nigerian was spotted and called up to the U20 women’s national team set up at the age of 18. But despite being a part of the training camp, she was not given a chance to make her debut in any of the qualifiers ahead of the 2016 FIFA U20 Women’s World Cup.There were still expectations that she could still make the team traveling to Papua New Guinea for the Mundial, but that was not to be. Now, the sensational striker is 20 years old and has her eyes set on the senior team.Following her move from KAA Gent to S.B.V Excelsior, Omidiji signed up to be managed by Temple Management Company alongside Super Falcons defender, Onome Ebi and she has never felt closer to her dream.“I always look up to players that have given their all and continue to do so. Onome has won three African Championships, played in four world cup tournaments and still has so much passion for the game, which I know will rub off on me,” Omidiji told busybuddiesng.com.“I cannot wait to actually play alongside her for the Super Falcons and will regularly be in communication with her. Even off the pitch, I am sure we shall do a lot of CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility) related activities together and more,” she added.In the meantime, the Nigeria Football Federation are yet to announce a new coach for the Super Falcons of Nigeria.Coach Florence Omagbemi led them to an unprecedented eighth African title in Cameroon last year but her post was declared vacant afterwards.The qualifiers for the 2018 Women Africa Cup of Nations to be staged in Ghana begins in February 2018.Audio Playerhttps://www.busybuddiesng.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/Omidiji-Sept-7.mp300:0000:0000:00Use Up/Down Arrow keys to increase or decrease volume.RelatedFalcons Will Tame Tough Indomitable Lionesses, say Falcons’ Captains (Audio)November 26, 2018In “AWCON”FIFA WWC: Six Home-based Players Make Dennerby’s Super Falcons SquadMay 25, 2019In “FIFA”Ajibade Set for Debut Against Bayana Bayana As Dennerby Names Chikwelu CaptainNovember 18, 2018In “AWCON”
USA22042.12 TeamPlayedWonLostPointsNNR Remaining matches15 November: Singapore v Uganda (Oman Club Turf 1); Denmark v USA (Oman Club Turf 2) 8.30am16 November: Oman v USA (Oman Club Turf 1); Kenya v Singapore (Oman Club Turf 2)18 November: Kenya v Denmark (Oman Club Turf 1); Oman v Uganda (Oman Club Turf 2)19 November: Singapore v USA (Oman Club Turf 1)SOURCE: ICC.com********RELATED STORIES FILE PHOTO: Ugandan cricketers, now playing for prideUPDATE #WCL3 Uganda ?? To bat vs Singapore ?? 204/10 in 49.4 USA ?? 230/7 in 50 vs Denmark ?? To batKampala, Uganda | LOUIS JADWONG | Uganda will hope to maintain their perfect record against Singapore when they play their penultimate match of the World Cricket League Division Three in Oman today.The Cricket Cranes’ hopes of making a return to the World Cricket League Division Two were virtually extinguished Tuesday by neighbors Kenya, leaving them to jostle for a favorable table placing in their final two games. Victory over Singapore today will ensure Uganda does not end bottom of the table.Uganda will go into this match confident, as they have won all two games they have ever played against Singapore at this level.The most exciting was at the 2014 edition, where Uganda snatched a one-run win. Set 196 to win, Singapore got stuck at 195/9 after the very last ball.It was much easier last year, with hosts Uganda (217/9 ) securing a 66 runs victory.This time round, Uganda has struggled getting close to the 200 run mark. Opener Arnold Otwani has given a good account of himself with two great scores of of 88 and 52, but all around him, wickets have consistently fallen cheaply.Only Dinesh Nakrani (50) in the last game against Kenya, has been put up a fight with the bat.If Singapore win today, they could well still be in contention for a top two place themselves, or determine the fortunes of two other contenders USA and Kenya, who they face in their next games.Oman are favourites to bounce back to Division two, but meanwhile, USA can move back to the top of the standings on Thursday when they take on bottom placed Denmark. A victory for USA will also confirm them as only one of three remaining to contend for the top two places.Uganda won the bat and chose to field, but will go into today’s game again minus key bowler Irfan Afridi, who has been suspended from bowling in international cricket.In a statement early this week, ICC said, “Per Article 3.6.2 of the ICC Regulations for the Review of Bowlers Reported with Suspected Illegal Bowling Actions, video footage of Irfan’s bowling spells were provided to the Expert Panel of Mark King and Andrea Cutti, who are members of the ICC Panel of Human Movement Specialists, for their analysis and assessment. The assessment revealed that the amount of elbow extension in Irfan’s bowling action was above the 15 degrees level of tolerance permitted under the regulations.”In Uganda’s second game, USA complained about Afridi’s action to the umpire, alleging chucking, and he was withdrawn before he could complete his spell. Oman33060.613 Uganda3122-0.104 LIVE SCORES (click)All eyes on 2023 World CupThe 2018 ICC World Cricket League Division Three is an international cricket tournament that is currently taking place in Oman between 9 and 19 November 2018. It forms part of the 2017–22 cycle of the World Cricket League (WCL) which determines the qualification for the 2023 Cricket World Cup.The top two teams will be promoted to the 2019 ICC World Cricket League Division Two tournament, and the other four teams will play in the 2019–21 ICC Cricket World Cup Challenge League.The 2019 ICC World Cricket League Division Two is scheduled to take place in April 2019 in Namibia. Singapore21120.443 Kenya3122-1.176 Denmark3030-1.116 Six teams will qualify for the tournament:Papua New Guinea (9th in the 2018 Cricket World Cup Qualifier)Hong Kong (10th in the 2018 Cricket World Cup Qualifier)Canada (3rd in 2018 ICC World Cricket League Division Two)Namibia (4th in 2018 ICC World Cricket League Division Two)TO BE DETERMINED (1st in 2018 ICC World Cricket League Division Three)TO BE DETERMINED (2nd in 2018 ICC World Cricket League Division Three)Standings so far Share on: WhatsApp
Only three teams — Barcelona, Roma and Deportivo La Coruna — have managed to overturn a deficit of three goals or more in a knockout-phase tie in the Champions League era:Barcelona stun PSGLast 16, 2016/17First leg: Paris Saint-Germain 4 (Di Maria 18, 55 Draxler 40, Cavani 72) Barcelona 0Return leg: Barcelona 6 (Suarez 3, Kurzawa 40-og, Messi 50-pen, Neymar 88, 90+1-pen, Roberto 90+5) Paris Saint-Germain 1 (Cavani 62)Barcelona won 6-5 on aggregateBarcelona made history as the first team to come back from a four-goal first-leg deficit in the Champions League on a dramatic night at the Camp Nou when Neymar punished his future side PSG with two goals.If PSG’s demolition of Luis Enrique’s Barcelona in Paris was a shock, the fightback was mind-blowing with the crucial last two goals coming in added time.Sergi Roberto came off the bench to write himself into Spanish football folklore with Barcelona’s sixth goal in the fifth minute of added time.“I didn’t know if I was dreaming –- I have never known a noise like that,” said a shell-shocked Roberto after the final whistle.Barca’s luck runs out in RomeQuarter-finals, 2017/18First leg: Barcelona 4 (De Rossi 38-og, Manolas 55-og, Pique 59, Suarez 87) Roma 1 (Dzeko 80)Return leg: Roma 3 (Dzeko 6, De Rossi 58-pen, Manolas 82) Barcelona 0Roma won on away goals Barcelona’s luck ran out in dramatic style 12 months after their PSG heroics with Edin Dzeko’s away goal at the Camp Nou proving crucial.The Bosnia striker struggled to express his joy at Roma’s achievement after his sixth-minute goal in the return leg sparked an incredible turnaround by the Italians.“We did it when definitely nobody believed in us,” said Dzeko.There appeared to be no way back for Roma after they were routed in Barcelona.However, after Dzeko’s early goal, a Daniele De Rossi penalty set the scene for Kostas Manolas’s 82nd-minute header to spark wild celebrations led by Roma president James Pallotta, who jumped into Rome’s Piazza del Popolo fountain.Irureta’s miracleQuarter-finals, 2003/04First leg: AC Milan 4 (Kaka 45, 49, Shevchenko 46, Pirlo 53) Deportivo La Coruna 1 (Pandiani 11)Return leg: Deportivo La Coruna 4 (Pandiani 5, Valeron 35, Luque 44, Fran 76) AC Milan 0Deportivo won 5-4 on aggregateAfter his side were trounced 4-1 at San Siro, Deportivo coach Javier Irureta admitted there was no rational reason to believe in a miracle.However, his side roared out of the blocks in the return, holding a 3-0 lead at half-time thanks to goals Walter Pandiani, Juan Carlos Valeron and Albert Luque.Substitute Fran Gonzalez added a fourth with 14 minutes to go and, having prayed for success, Irureta honoured his pre-match promise by taking the pilgrim trail to Santiago de Compostela after Deportivo’s unlikely victory. FILE PHOTO: Marcos Reus Dortmund, Germany | AFP | Borussia Dortmund must overturn a 3-0 first-leg defeat when they host Tottenham Hotspur on Tuesday in their Champions League last 16, second leg. Share on: WhatsApp
“We want Messi to play for Barca through to 2021 and beyond. We are very calm.”Messi, Barca’s record goalscorer, is currently out injured with a calf injury, with the team struggling in his absence, managing to collect just four points from their opening three La Liga matches. Share on: WhatsApp FILE PHOTO: Lionel Messi Madrid, Spain | AFP | Barcelona president Josep Maria Bartomeu said on Friday the Spanish giants are not worried about Lionel Messi’s future, despite the Argentinian star being able to leave the club at the end of the season.The five-time Ballon d’Or winner signed a new four-year deal with Barca in 2017, but Bartomeu says he is free to end his contract beforehand.“Leo Messi has a contract through to the 2020/21 season, but the player is able to leave Barca before the final season,” Bartomeu told Barcelona’s in-house television channel.“It’s the same case as with the final contracts that Xavi, (Carles) Puyol and (Andres) Iniesta had. They are players who deserve that liberty, and we shouldn’t worry, as they are very committed to Barca.
Then coach of Juventus, Conte received an initial 10-month suspension, which was later reduced to four months, before being acquitted of the charges in 2016.Conte responded by calling Mourinho “a little man”, but the two exchanged a smile before kick-off and embraced afterwards as United came from behind to win at Old Trafford thanks to goals from Romelu Lukaku and Jesse Lingard.“I think the handshake doesn’t need any words,” said Mourinho. “I think that’s what me and Antonio will want to show to everyone.“The handshake before and after the match is an example that everything in football you have to move (on) and you have to respect each other.“Mourinho and Conte are not two ordinary persons in football. We have a history, we have an image and I’m really happy with that.”Conte was less effusive when quizzed over whether he and Mourinho had decided before the game to bury the hatchet.“He wanted to see shake hands and we did the peace,” said the Italian.On the field Mourinho got the upper hand, but only after Chelsea bossed the opening exchanges.Chelsea went in front just before the half hour mark when Willian and Eden Hazard exchanged passes before Willian drilled home his fourth goal in three games.Shake on it: Mourinho shakes hands with Conte after the game © AFP / Oli SCARFF“The beginning of the game was blue,” admitted Mourinho, who brought £89 million man Paul Pogba back into his starting line-up as part of a new four-man diamond shape in midfield.“We took a bit of time to adapt to some new positions on the pitch. The way we were playing the players in the midfield square they took a bit of time to find the timings to press.“We then found that balance and in the second half the team was solid, felt more comfortable to go in attacking areas and, without creating lots of chances because against Chelsea that is not possible, we created a few and score the winning goal that I think in the end we deserve.”Victory was a huge boost for United’s hopes of finishing in the top four as they move six points clear of fifth-placed Chelsea and back above Liverpool into second.However, Mourinho expects the fight between his side, Liverpool, Tottenham Hotspur and Chelsea for three places behind Manchester City in next season’s Champions League to go down to the wire.“We are four very good teams, all of them fighting to be in quarter-finals of Champions League and that shows the dimensions of the teams.“But from four of us somebody has to be out, so the fight will be big until the end.”Conte lamented his side’s inability to make the most of their dominance in the opening half hour as they slipped to a third defeat in four league games.“At the end we are talking about another defeat.“We must be disappointed because when you have this type of situation you have to manage the game better with experience and maturity to get three points.”0Shares0000(Visited 2 times, 1 visits today) 0Shares0000Friendly fire: Mourinho and Conte at Old Trafford on Sunday © AFP / Oli SCARFFMANCHESTER, United Kingdom, Feb 25 – Manchester United manager Jose Mourinho believes it was important for two coaches of his and Chelsea’s Antonio Conte’s stature to put their public dispute behind them by shaking hands before and after United’s 2-1 victory on Sunday.Mourinho and Conte’s simmering rift exploded in January when the Portuguese cited an accusation brought by the Italian Football Federation in 2012 that Conte failed to report match-fixing involving his former club Siena during the 2010-11 season.
As part an on-going effort to support local charities, the Vintage, with Love initiative calls on regular South Africans donate or buy vintage designer clothes during their sale which begins on Spring Day.To help social enterprises that work towards educating communities and promote bettering literacy levels, the Vintage with Love event will have clothes and accessories on sale this weekend. Proceeds go to charities. (Image: Vintage with Love, Facebook)Brand South Africa reporterProminent designer brand clothes, shoes and accessories are on sale at the popular fashion pop-up event Vintage, with Love from Friday 1 to Sunday 3 September 2017 in Cape Town. This is an event where buyers will make a difference because proceeds will go to charitable causes and social enterprises.The Vintage, with Love sale promises to offer fashionable clothes, shoes and accessories that have been donated but is in good condition.Brand South Africa has previously joined forces with Partners for Possibility (PFP), one of the beneficiaries of this event. According to Dorcas Dube, marketing and communications manager of PFP, since the first event Vintage, with Love has raised enough funds to fully sponsor two principals from under-resourced schools.PFP is a leadership development and principal support process run by Symphonia for South Africa. Since 2010, Symphonia for South Africa has been supporting and empowering school principals by partnering business leaders to teach skills and knowledge to lead change.In the PFP process for example, business leaders guide principals to mobilise communities around their schools and work on leveraging resources.Watch this video to learn more about Partners for Possibility:The eventVintage, with Love posted a few sale items on Facebook:How Vintage, with Love startedVintage, with Love was founded in 2013 by Leigh Ord, a trained teacher and the co-founder of the Charities Unlimited golf day, and Jacquie Myburgh Chemaly, a journalist and communications consultant who specialises in décor, design, fashion, and food.With the help of volunteers, the two have hosted several large pop-ups in Cape Town and Johannesburg.According to the website, Vintage, with Love is a platform for women everywhere to be a part of a project to raise money for reputed literacy programmes – by simply clearing out their wardrobes.“Vintage with Love is inviting generous women in Johannesburg, Cape Town and elsewhere in South Africa, as well as designers and boutiques, to donate their once loved fabulous fashion items to a good cause,” reads the website.ContactEmail: [email protected]: 079 521 9090Website: vintagewithlove.co.zaYou can also follow the team on Twitter or Facebook.Sources: Vintage with Love, Partners for Possibility and Vintage with Love, Facebook.Would you like to use this article in your publication or on your website? See Using Brand South Africa material.
“Help! My boss hates marketing!” is one of the most common comments I get from people who speak to me after my presentations. Here are some quick answers to: “How do I get my boss/board/team to value/fund/stop hating marketing?”Simply stated, you don’t. Instead, you do the following six things.1. Stop calling it marketing. Call it something else.Instead of trying to convince your boss, board or team to love marketing, try showing them what THEY care about and how you can make that happen.2. Show how your “initiative” meets their agenda. Don’t position your agenda as a marketing campaign; frame it as your initiative to support your boss’s goals, in your boss’s language. Demonstrate how you are going to help make that fundraising goal, audience behavior change or front-page newspaper story happen.3. Make it about the audience.A good way to depersonalize different visions for “marketing” is to make it about your audience’s preferences rather than a philosophical tug of war between you and said boss. A little audience research is great fodder for advancing your agenda.4. Report every wee step of progress.Every single time anything good happens, be sure the boss knows it. Identify some early, likely wins toward your boss’s goals and report victories.5. Give your boss credit and put him or her in the spotlight. When good things happen, give credit to your boss. Create a dashboard that shows progress against your boss’s goals and let your boss show that progress to the board. Your boss will like you for it. If you pitched your organization’s story in a completely new, marketing-savvy way to reporters and that yielded your boss’s photo in the paper, all the better.6. Seek forgiveness, not permission. If all else fails, just do what you want to do anyway, quietly, and tell your boss about it when something good happens.
Match.58 percent$59 Standalone.31 percent$55 When it comes to online fundraising, there is no “one size fits all” magic formula to inspire list members to give. However, some tactics do work better than others.In an attempt to find out which strategies work best and when, we reviewed more than 180 fundraising appeals sent out over the course of the 2006 calendar year by nine prominent national non-profit organizations (see Study Participants for a full list). We explored everything from “double your money” matching gift opportunities to deadline-driven campaigns to goal-oriented asks. For the purposes of our analysis, we grouped the appeals we reviewed into one or more of the following four tactic categories:Multiple Appeal Series. Messages sent as part of a cohesive, multiple appeal campaign over the course of three weeks were compared to stand alone appeals that were not part of a larger series.Deadline-Driven. Stand alone or multiple appeal series that used a deadline to drive giving were compared to those without a deadline.Matching Gift. Stand alone or multiple appeal fundraising series that included a matching gift offer were compared to those without a matching gift element.Dollar Goal. Stand alone or multiple appeal series that focused on reaching a monetary goal were compared to those that did not make use of a dollar goal.However, many of the messages we reviewed fell into more than one of these categories — for example, a three-appeal matching gift series with a deadline of June 2nd and a goal of raising $25,000 would fall into all four categories. Because there are substantial variations in response rate, average gift, etc., among the organizations, we chose to evaluate these four tactics within each organization rather than compare the messages to each other. This led to a fairly small sample size, making it harder to draw definitive conclusions; however, our results did trend toward statistical significance in three of the four tactic categories.Multiple Appeal SeriesPerhaps the most striking finding was the difference between multiple appeal series (a fundraising campaign made up of two or more appeals) and single or “stand-alone” fundraising appeals. We found that the multiple fundraising appeal series tended to outperform one-time appeals, resulting in both a higher response rate and a higher average gift. Deadline Versus No Deadline Average Response RateAverage Gift Karen Matheson is the Manager of Quantitative Research and Analysis for M+R Strategic Services.Eve Fox is a vice president of the eCampaigns division of M+R Strategic Services.Copyright © 2007 M+R Strategic Services. All Rights Reserved. Series1.32 percent$99 No Match.34 percent$39 For more information on study methodology and statistical significance of results, please see Study Methodology, below. Multi-Appeal Versus Standalone No Deadline$60 Matching GiftsDespite the fact that our small sample size prevents us from drawing any firm conclusions, the results of the analysis did trend towards significance. It appears that the idea of making a donation that will be doubled by another donor (or group of donors) is motivational to many online donors. A matching gift campaign also provides the perfect rationale to introduce a deadline and to send out multiple appeals, both good ways to boost returns. Matching Gift Versus No Matching Gift Average Response RateAverage Gift Dollar GoalsUnfortunately, the jury is still out on the effectiveness of including a dollar goal in a fundraising appeal. The results of our analysis were not large enough (again, possibly because of the small sample size) to be considered statistically significant. However, setting a dollar goal for a fundraising campaign does provide a solid rationale for setting a deadline to reach the goal and for sending multiple appeals leading up to the deadline — both tactics which are likely to increase response rates overall.ConclusionNo matter what your current fundraising strategies or goals are, we recommend that you continue to test different messaging hooks and tactics to find out which ones work best for your audience. A carefully crafted multiple appeal series could be used in conjunction with standalone messages, and might just increase your response rates and overall donations. Deadlines, matching gifts, and dollar goals are creative (and often effective) ways of raising money and engaging your email list members. Every organization has unique and specific needs, but the strategies described above are a useful place to start testing new approaches.Study ParticipantsDonorsChooseLeague of Conservation VotersNational Parks Conservation AssociationOxfam AmericaPlanned Parenthood Federation of AmericaPhil Angelides’ Campaign for Governor of CaliforniaPublic CampaignSave Darfur CoalitionThe Wilderness SocietyStudy MethodologyWe reviewed more than 180 fundraising appeals sent out by the nine national nonprofit organizations listed above between January and December of 2006. We examined appeals in four categories: appeal versus series, deadline-driven versus no deadline, matching gift versus no match, and dollar goal versus no goal. As explained above, every fundraising appeal was categorized by whether it was a member of each appeal category; this allowed for messages to belong to none of these categories or all of these categories.Because differences among the organizations’ message tone and donor databases were difficult to control for, we compared messages by fundraising tactic within organizations. One downside to using this “paired samples” data was that it kept our sample size small, which reduced our ability to generalize the results to all organizations.Given that the sample size was so small, it is encouraging to see some statistically significant (at the .05 level) results in the data we presented. Our results did trend toward statistical significance in three of the four tactics investigated. “Statistical significance” means that the differences we found within the paired samples were unlikely to be the result of chance variations. For more information about statistical significance, check see Statsoft’s article Elementary Concepts in Statistics.About the Authors: Deadline-Driven Appeals and SeriesThe results of our analysis showed that appeals and series that included a deadline by which gifts must be made tended to be more effective than open-ended appeals without specific deadlines. Although the difference between average gifts was significant, the difference between the response rates was not statistically significant (so we have not included it here).Although further analysis (ideally with a larger sample size) is warranted, it appears that deadlines, whether tiered to some real-life event or introduced without explanation, do tend to boost the returns on a fundraising appeal or campaign. Deadline$93 Average Gift
Here’s a pop quiz. Read the following two paragraphs and see which is more apt to tug at your heartstrings:A) Any money that you donate will go to Rokia, a seven-year-old girl who lives in Mali in Africa. Rokia is desperately poor and faces a threat of severe hunger, even starvation. Her life will be changed for the better as a result of your financial gift. With your support, and the support of other caring sponsors, Save the Children will work with Rokia’s family and other members of the community to help feed and educate her, and provide her with basic medical care.B) Food shortages in Malawi are affecting more than three million children. In Zambia, severe rainfall deficits have resulted in a 42% drop in maize production from 2000. As a result, an estimated three million Zambians face hunger. Four million Angolans — one-third of the population — have been forced to flee their homes. More than 11 million people in Ethiopia need immediate food assistance.If you answered A, you are like most people, according to a new study conducted by Deborah Small, a Wharton marketing professor, and two colleagues. The researchers found that if organizations want to raise money for a charitable cause, it is far better to appeal to the heart than to the head. Put another way, feelings, not analytical thinking, drive donations.Rokia is what academic researchers call an “identifiable victim.” As such, her personal story, which focuses exclusively on her plight and not that of other famine victims, is much more likely to generate charitable donations than more dispassionate descriptions of unnamed “statistical victims” like those in paragraph B, according to Small.That people would want to give money to identifiable victims like Rokia rather than unnamed famine victims may not seem all that surprising. But Small and her colleagues, in a series of field experiments, delved deeper into the issue of sympathy and how it relates to charitable giving. The researchers found that if people are presented with a personal case of an identifiable victim along with statistical data about similar victims caught up in a larger pattern of illness, hunger or neglect, overall donations actually decline. In addition, they found that if people are told about the inconsistent levels of sympathy evoked by identifiable and statistical victims — the “identifiable victim effect,” in the words of the researchers — people reduce their giving to identifiable victims but do not increase their giving to statistical victims.Small says the findings — which hold implications for policymakers, fundraisers for charities and even news organizations that urge donations to victims of tragic events — show that sympathy and aid-giving are often irrational.“When donating to charitable causes, people do not value lives consistently,” write Small and her co-authors, George Loewenstein of Carnegie Mellon University and Paul Slovic of Decision Research, a non-profit research firm in Eugene, Ore. “Money is often concentrated on a single victim even though more people would be helped if resources were dispersed or spent protecting future victims.”In many cases, society “would be better off if resources were spread among victims such that each additional dollar is spent where it will do the most good,” according to the paper, titled “Sympathy and Callousness: The Impact of Deliberative Thought on Donations to Identifiable and Statistical Victims.” Yet when making a decision to donate money toward a cause, “most people probably do not calculate the expected benefit of their donation. Rather, choices are made intuitively, based on spontaneous affective reactions.”The study cites several well-known examples of large sums of money being donated to help identifiable victims. In 1987, a child named Jessica McClure, dubbed “Baby Jessica” by the news media, fell into a well near her home in Texas and received nearly $700,000 in donations from the public. Ali Abbas, a boy who lost both his arms and his parents in the Iraq War in 2003, was the subject of widespread media attention in Europe and received some $550,000 in donations. Even animals generate sympathy: In 2002, more than $48,000 was contributed to save Forgea, a dog stranded on a ship adrift in the Pacific Ocean.Proportions vs. Absolute ValuesWhy do identifiable victims elicit such an outpouring of emotion — as well as piles of accompanying cash? In general, psychological research has found that “people pay greater attention and have stronger emotional reactions to vivid rather than pallid information,” says Small, a psychologist by training. Furthermore, the mind responds to proportions, not absolute values. “This is why we gasp when we see a 50%-off sale, regardless of whether the original price is $5 or $500,” she adds. “Similarly, saving 10 lives out of a group of 100 is a high proportion and thus evokes a greater emotional response than saving 10 lives out of one million. An identifiable victim is the extreme, in this sense. When a victim has been identified, she becomes her own frame of reference — there was only one Baby Jessica to save — and thus receives the greatest level of sympathy.”Small and her co-authors reached their conclusions by conducting a series of four field experiments involving ordinary citizens. The researchers gave each person $5 in one-dollar bills. They were then instructed to read a letter containing a charity request and asked to donate a sum of money, ranging from zero to $5, by placing the money anonymously in an envelope.Each experiment was designed to encourage “rational” thinking when people made decisions about how much money to donate to identifiable and statistical victims. In one experiment, for example, the subjects were told about the identifiable victim effect before being asked to make a donation. In another experiment, the researchers provided statistics about victims alongside a request for donations to an identifiable victim.The upshot of the four experiments was that people are most generous when asked to make a donation to an identifiable victim in the absence of “rational” analytic thought. The more statistical information the citizens were given about the general plight of a group of people, the less generous they became. Yet emotion-based thought failed to augment generosity to statistical victims. “It’s easy to override people’s feelings by giving them statistical information,” according to Small. “But it’s not so easy to add feelings where feelings aren’t naturally there to begin with. It’s hard for humans to generate feelings toward statistics.”One subtle positive finding was that informing ordinary citizens about the identifiable victim effect at least had the result of increasing their consistency towards the two types of victims. Yet the field experiments showed that giving people statistical information had a pernicious effect on overall caring, since people gave less to the identifiable victims but no more to the statistical victims.“Insight, in this situation, seems to breed callousness,” the researchers write. “In some ways, this conclusion seems well founded. Faced with almost any disaster of any magnitude, it is almost always possible to think of worse things that have happened or even that are currently happening in the world. The deaths of 9/11 [numbering 2,973], for example, compared with the slaughter in Rwanda [estimated at between 500,000 and one million]” seem to have less impact. But the slaughter in Rwanda, in turn, “is dwarfed by the problem of AIDS in Africa. Thinking about problems analytically can easily suppress sympathy for smaller-scale disasters without, our research suggests, producing much of an increase in caring for larger-scale disasters.”Yet the researchers acknowledge that this interpretation may have limitations. It is possible, they say, that deliberate, rational thinking in some cases may lead to more charity. “For example,” they write, “contrary to the difference between statistical and identifiable victims, we often experience little visceral sympathy for needy victims who are from other countries or of a different race or socioeconomic status, but thinking about their plight may lead us to recognize their deservingness. In such instances, we conjecture, interventions that encourage deliberate thinking like those presented in the four studies … might lead to greater generosity rather than less.”Charities Need a Compelling MessageWhat implications does Small’s paper hold for charitable organizations? “It’s all about putting together a simple, emotionally compelling message,” Small says. “The best way to do that is in the form of a picture or a story, something that purely engages the emotional system. The mistake that many charities make is trying to appeal both to emotion and to reason. They assume this would be more effective than appealing to only one or the other, but it isn’t.”Although they feel that charitable donations might be more efficiently distributed among more desperate victims if donors were not so emotional in making decisions to give money, the researchers do not criticize people who wish to help when they feel sympathetic.“Although the money spent on Baby Jessica and Ali Abbas could save more lives in theory if not concentrated as such, the absence of identifiability effects might reduce the impetus to give at all,” they write. “Thus, although victim identification may distort aid allocation somewhat, its impact generates more aid than any other pitch. Charities certainly recognize this, at least implicitly, when they employ a poster child to raise money for a general cause.”Source: http://knowledge.wharton.upenn.edu/article.cfm?articleid=1767Copyright of the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania