(PhysOrg.com) — Critics of the Space Program can utter a sigh of relief. Finally, an innovation with a good suds head on it. A colloborative effort between the Russian Academy of Science, Okayama University and Sopporo Breweries in Japan has developed a beer that uses 100-percent barley grown on the International Space Station. The barley was grown on the ISS during a five-month period along with lettuce, wheat and peas as part of a life-sustaining long term growing project. Explore further Image credit: AFPBB Citation: This One’s For You: ISS Space Barley Beer (2008, December 4) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2008-12-iss-space-barley-beer.html Japan’s ‘space beer’ sparkles among drinkers Sopporo Breweries acquired the space barley crop and has developed what they are calling Space Barley with a 5.5-percent alcohol content. Sopporo Breweries is not selling the 100-liters of Space Barley Beer it has created. Instead, 30 Japanese couples have been selected to taste Space Barley at a special event in Tokyo in January. Sopporo´s Junichi Ichikawa, a managing director of strategies for the brewery, says the Space Barley brand is unique insofar as it´s top Black Label brand uses additional ingredients like rice. Space Barley is made completely with the ISS barley. There is no commercially made beer like the Space Barley Brand. Beer is not included in the ISS menu due to the alcohol content and its potential for creating a gaseous product of digestion. Sopporo Brewery is hoping the Space Barley product could eventually become available for astronauts to sip a cool one while spending months aboard the space station. The news of the Space Barley Beer came about when it was discovered that a cargo of miso and mackerel, seaweed soup and green tea was sent to the International Space Station recently to sustain astronauts. According to a Russian cosmonaut, potatoes can be eventually grown on the ISS. He is quoted as saying, “pototoes can be grown for food, not for vodka production.” Sopporo Breweries is one of the oldest beer producers world-wide. It began in 1876 under a different name and under the direction of Seibei Nakagawa who studied beer making in Germany. The first beer label, Sopporo Lager reflects the Pioneer´s symbol, the Northern Star. © 2008 PhysOrg.com This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
The company is to invite on board some relevant industry partners, including NAND flash memory makers SanDisk, Micron, and Samsung. The goal is to explore a new SSD form-factor derived from mSATA. Reports are that Intel is harnessing PC manufacturers and storage specialists to work out a new storage standard, specifically, called the Next Generation Form Factor (NGFF).The standard mSATA SSDs set specific limits to the printed circuit board size, while the new NGFF would allow for larger printed circuit boards to be made. It is expected that the next generation of NGFF SSD for the 2013 Ultrabooks will feature the same width and thickness but will have a longer PCB.Intel’s recruits—Micron, SanDisk and Samsung Electronics—will help Intel to make Next Generation Form Factor (NGFF) better. Five length standards under consideration by Intel for the next generation of SSDs include 20mm, 42mm, 60mm, 80mm and 120mm.The NGFF will allow Intel to push beyond current limitations of 512 gigabytes of flash storage without changing the thickness or width of drives. According to reports, the 42mm, 60mm and 80mm are the likely sizes. Work on the specifications is expected to continue through September. The new drives will be on the market next year.The news comes none too soon for those familiar with the designs in question. The NGFF specs will allow disparate Ultrabook manufacturers to support a single SSD physical standard and will thereby make the industry a better environment overall, according to a recent article in The SSD Review. “I can’t imagine how many times an Ultrabook owner has cracked open their case in hopes of an upgrade, only to find that the SSD they want to swap out is in some obscure proprietary format, or worse yet, is soldered onto the motherboard. Can you say stress?” Intel introduces 400GB and 800GB Solid-State Drive 910 series for data centers Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Citation: Intel sets sights on new Ultrabook SSD specs (2012, August 14) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2012-08-intel-sights-ultrabook-ssd-specs.html (Phys.org) — Intel reportedly plans to standardize SSD specifications for its Ultrabook platform, in line with its resolve to lead the way toward slimmer, faster laptops. Intel wants a new SSD connectivity standard because it needs to put to rest some issues with the mSATA standard. The latter stands for Mini-SATA, an interface connector. The current mSATA-specification SSDs used in Ultrabooks are limited in capacity. It is impossible to fit in more than four or six chips of NAND flash memory, and Ultrabooks would be limited to 512 GB of storage. Intel is not about to live with that limitation. © 2012 Phys.Org
Everlasting Quantum Wave: Physicists Predict New Form of Soliton in Ultracold Gases Copyright 2013 Phys.org All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed in whole or part without the express written permission of Phys.org. The physicists, Alexander L. Gaunt, Richard J. Fletcher, Robert P. Smith, and Zoran Hadzibabic at the University of Cambridge in the UK, have published their study on the superheated BEC in a recent issue of Nature Physics.As the physicists explain, a superheated BEC is reminiscent of superheated distilled water (water that has had many of its impurities removed), which remains liquid above 100 °C, the temperature at which it would normally boil into a gas. In both cases, the temperature—as defined by the average energy per particle (boson or water molecule)—rises above a critical temperature at which the phase transition should occur, and yet it doesn’t. In BECs and distilled water, the inhibition of a phase transition at the critical temperature occurs for different reasons. In general, there are two types of phase transitions. The boiling of water is a first-order phase transition, and it can be inhibited in clean water because, in the absence of impurities, there is in an energy barrier that “protects” the liquid from boiling away. On the other hand, boiling a BEC is a second-order phase transition. In this case, superheating occurs because the BEC component and the remaining thermal (non-condensed) component decouple and evolve as two separate equilibrium systems.The physicists explain how this mechanism works in more detail. In equilibrium, a BEC can only exist below a critical transition temperature. If the temperature is increased towards the critical value, the BEC should gradually decay into the thermal component. The particles flow between the two components until they have the same chemical potential (a measure of how much energy it takes to add a particle to either component), or in other words, until they are in equilibrium with each other. However, maintaining this equilibrium relies on the interactions between the particles. Citation: Superheated Bose-Einstein condensate exists above critical temperature (2013, April 10) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2013-04-superheated-bose-einstein-condensate-critical-temperature.html Journal information: Nature Physics (a) Physicists created a BEC that can persist at up to 1.5 times hotter than the critical temperature at which it normally decays. (b) The BEC can survive in the superheated regime for more than a minute when different components of the boson gas are not in equilibrium. Credit: Alexander L. Gaunt, et al. ©2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited , Physical Review Letters More information: Alexander L. Gaunt, et al. “A superheated Bose-condensed gas.” Nature Physics. DOI: 10.1038/NPHYS2587Related: R. P. Smith, et al. “Effects of interactions on the critical temperature of a trapped Bose gas.” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 250403 (2011) DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.106.250403 This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. (Phys.org) —At very low temperatures, near absolute zero, multiple particles called bosons can form an unusual state of matter in which a large fraction of the bosons in a gas occupy the same quantum state—the lowest one—to form a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). In a sense, the bosons lose their individual identities and behave like a single, very large atom. But while previously BECs have only existed below a critical temperature, scientists in a new study have shown that BECs can exist above this critical temperature for more than a minute when different components of the gas evolve at different rates. Explore further Here, the researchers demonstrated that in an optically trapped potassium-39 gas the strength of interactions can be reduced just enough so that the two components remain at the same temperature, but the particle flow between them is slowed down and their chemical potentials decouple. This condition makes it possible for the BEC to maintain a higher chemical potential than the surrounding thermal component, and thus survive far above its equilibrium transition temperature.”The thing that prompted this work was a previous paper of ours on measuring the equilibrium BEC transition temperature as a function of the interparticle interaction strength,” Smith told Phys.org. “At the time we noticed that something funny was happening at very low interaction strengths: the transition temperature seemed higher than it should be by up to 5%. We realized that this was probably due to non-equilibrium effects, but could not explain it fully. Also, the effect was much smaller than we demonstrated now. Only after fully understanding the equilibrium properties of a BEC in an interacting gas we could come back to this problem, demonstrate a much clearer effect, and explain it quantitatively.”In the new study, the physicists experimentally demonstrated that a BEC could persist in the superheated regime (at temperatures above the critical temperature) for more than a minute. They also showed that that they could cause the BEC to rapidly boil away by strengthening the interatomic interactions to their normal levels, confirming the presence of the superheated state. The scientists predict that extending a BEC’s lifetime by tuning the interactions could have several applications.”Generally, atomic BECs are increasingly used for applications such as atom interferometry and precision measurements, and might also find applications in quantum information processing and computing,” Smith said. “For all those applications one wishes to preserve the coherent BEC for as long as possible, e.g., to perform a longer (hence more precise) measurement or more quantum-information type operations. Our work shows that it is possible to significantly extend the lifetime of a coherent BEC exposed to the experimentally unavoidable decohering thermal environment.”In the future, the researchers plan to further investigate the physical mechanism behind superheating.”We are primarily interested in further fundamental understanding of the superheating phenomenon,” Smith said. “The funny thing is that the system is simultaneously in equilibrium in some respects (e.g., the BEC and the thermal component have the same temperature, the BEC has an equilibrium shape for the given number of condensed atoms, etc.) and out of equilibrium in other ways (primarily the fact that the number of condensed atoms is much higher than expected in equilibrium). This poses new question about how we define equilibrium in a quantum system, which we would like to understand better. Practical applications might come later, fully exploiting their potential being reliant on more complete fundamental understanding. “Also, it turns out that condensation in 2D systems is even more interesting than in 3D, and we plan to study superheating and other non-equilibrium phenomena for an ultracold 2D Bose gas.”
New protein nanoparticles allow scientists to track cells and interactions within them Scientists have studied animals, such as homing pigeons, that are able to use the Earth’s magnetic field to orient themselves, for quite some time, but have yet to uncover the actual mechanism behind the ability. In this new work, the researchers believe they may have found the underlying chemistry, even if they have not been able to connect it directly to magnetic sensing.The researchers picked up where other research left off—with a light sensing protein called cryptochrome that has been identified in the eyes of some animals–some have suggested it may play a part in magnetic sensing. But, because the protein is not sensitive to magnetism, the team reasoned that it might team up with another protein that is. To find out, they searched the genome of a fruit fly that is known to sense magnetic fields, until they found a gene responsible for creating a protein (called CG8198, which they renamed to MagR) that would respond to iron. They then polymerized that protein and coupled it with cryptochrome and then watched, using a microscope, what happened when iron objects were brought near. The team reports that the protein complex lined up like a needle in a compass.The researchers acknowledge that their findings do not prove that the protein complex is responsible for magnetic sensing, but suggest it seems possible—if the protein complex lined up inside the eye of a pigeon, for example, it could cause a reaction with other proteins or even cells, that in turn could impact nerve cells. They note that the protein complex exists in many organisms that have demonstrated magnetic sensing, including in the eyes of pigeons—they are calling on the research community to conduct other studies to determine if removing the complex from magnetic sensing insects or animals, causes them to lose their magnetic sensing abilities, which could indirectly prove that they form the basis for the ability. If such efforts prove fruitful, then the next logical step would be to study the complex further as it exists inside living animals to determine exactly how it works. Explore further Journal information: Nature Materials The biocompass model of animal magnetoreception and navigation. Credit: (c) Nature Materials (2015). DOI: 10.1038/nmat4484 This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. (Phys.org)—A team of researchers with Peking University, the Chinese Academy of Sciences and Tsinghua University has identified a protein that aligns with a magnetic field when polymerized and coupled with another well known protein. In their paper published in the journal Nature Materials, the researchers suggest the protein complex may be the means by which many insects and animals orient themselves using the Earth’s magnetic field. © 2015 Phys.org Citation: Protein complex may help explain magnetic sensing in insects and animals (2015, November 17) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2015-11-protein-complex-magnetic-insects-animals.html More information: Siying Qin et al. A magnetic protein biocompass, Nature Materials (2015). DOI: 10.1038/nmat4484AbstractThe notion that animals can detect the Earth’s magnetic field was once ridiculed, but is now well established. Yet the biological nature of such magnetosensing phenomenon remains unknown. Here, we report a putative magnetic receptor (Drosophila CG8198, here named MagR) and a multimeric magnetosensing rod-like protein complex, identified by theoretical postulation and genome-wide screening, and validated with cellular, biochemical, structural and biophysical methods. The magnetosensing complex consists of the identified putative magnetoreceptor and known magnetoreception-related photoreceptor cryptochromes (Cry), has the attributes of both Cry- and iron-based systems, and exhibits spontaneous alignment in magnetic fields, including that of the Earth. Such a protein complex may form the basis of magnetoreception in animals, and may lead to applications across multiple fields.
3-D inks that can be erased selectively Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Stimuli-responsive pNIPAM valves in PETA microchannels. a) 3D reconstruction of experimental data recorded via confocal laser scanning microscopy. Two different color channels have been recorded, allowing to separate the fluorescence from the PETA with the green fluorescent DETC and that from pNIPAM with the red fluorescent rhodamine dye. The corresponding iso-intensity surfaces are colored in turquoise and gray, respectively. Upon heating the sample to 45 °C, the opening in the middle widens. This process is reversible when cooling the sample back down. b) Open area in the middle of the microchannel at 20 °C and 45 °C for multiple cycles of stimulation. We find no significant deterioration. c) Alternative design with an additional inner tube and two pNIPAM-tori. Complete closure of the microchannel can be achieved in a reversible manner. Scale bars are 30 µm. Credit: Hippler et al. Stimuli-responsive microstructures are of key importance for the creation of adaptable systems, which can have interesting applications in soft robotics and biosciences. For practical application, however, materials need to be compatible with aqueous environments while also enabling the manufacturing of 3-D structures, for instance, using 3-D printing. “3-D printing by direct laser writing is a powerful technique enabling the manufacturing of almost all arbitrary stable structures in the micrometer range,” Marc Hippler, one of the researchers who carried out the study, told TechXplore. “However, for many applications, especially in the biomedical field, it is desirable to change the properties of the resulting microstructure on demand, as this enables the step from passive to active systems. We wanted to present a powerful and versatile technique to create such structures.” In order to achieve complex actuation patterns, researchers need to use materials that react differently to external stimuli, such as temperature and light. Hippler and his colleagues thus developed new 3-D hetero-microstructures based on N-isopropylacrylamide, a temperature-responsive monomer that is commercially available. Using their method, the researchers successfully created active structures that exhibit a large-amplitude response to changes in temperature. In addition, they showed that the response of these structures can be activated both globally, by changing the water temperature, and locally, by illuminating the desired microstructure with a laser focus. Temperature-induced actuation using pNIPAM-based hetero-microstructures. a) Scheme of bi-material hetero-structures with the two materials highlighted in green and gray, lower and higher dose exposure, respectively. These can be compared with the 3D reconstructions of measured fluorescence image stacks. The two temperatures T = 20 °C and T = 45 °C are highlighted in blue and red, respectively. The beams start straight at T = 20 °C and are curved at T = 45 °C. b Curvature, i.e., inverse radius obtained by fitting a circle to the experimental data, versus temperature. The right-hand side panel shows the result of twelve temperature cycles without deterioration (error bars are s.d.). c) Bright-field optical micrographs of a 3 × 3 array of nominally identical structures to demonstrate the reproducibility. d) Temperature dependence of five structures with different beam lengths prepared under identical fabrication conditions. Scale bars are 20 µm in a and b and 50 µm in c and d. Credit: Hippler et al. © 2019 Science X Network Citation: Researchers develop 3-D microstructures that respond to temperature and light (2019, January 30) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-01-d-microstructures-temperature.html A team of researchers at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) and Heidelberg University have recently introduced functional 3-D hetero-microstructures based on Poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) (pNIPAM) a polymer that responds to changes in temperature close to its lower critical solution temperature. Mechanical analysis of a pNIPAM block fabricated by 3D laser lithography. a) Optical micrograph in the AFM with overlayed indications for the force measurements and the line-scan. Scale bar is 50 µm. b) Measured Young’s Modulus as a function of temperature for a stepwise heating and cooling of the sample. c) Height measurement via line-scanning from the glass substrate on top of the pNIPAM block. The different colors depict several cycles of heating and cooling. Credit: Hippler et al. “We demonstrated a very versatile and powerful technique that can be employed and used by other people,” Hippler said. “I think three of the main aspects of our study are the creation of materials with largely different properties out of a single photoresist, the strong actuation due to a mild stimulus and the opportunity to use light to trigger the response. Due to this versatility, we didn’t focus on one particular application, but highlighted different possibilities.” In the future, these findings could inform the development of materials with applications in a variety of fields, including microfluidics, soft robotics and biosciences. Hippler will now continue working on this system, specifically focusing on biological experiments.”Additionally, we will be investigating other stimuli-responsive material systems with interesting properties that could be used for direct laser writing,” he said. More information: Marc Hippler et al. Controlling the shape of 3D microstructures by temperature and light, Nature Communications (2019). DOI: 10.1038/s41467-018-08175-w Journal information: Nature Communications “One important goal of our study was to achieve strong responses with a ‘mild’ stimulus,” Hippler said. “By increasing the temperature only slightly above room temperature we stay in a physiological range, which makes the system interesting for biological applications. One could, for example, think about single cells in 3-D scaffolds that are mechanically stimulated by their environment. We also demonstrated that this technique could be useful for other fields, such as microfluidics or soft robotics.”Hippler and his colleagues demonstrated that by changing the local exposure dose in 3-D laser lithography, the material parameters could be altered on demand. They then explored this possibility further to create 3-D architectures with large amplitude and complex responses.
The 43-minute-duration film strives to highlight the man- nature relationship of the Santhal community. The Santhals live close to nature. As a community they may be seen in the context of their environment, ecology, the supernatural and beyond. Music and dance form an inseparable part of their day-to-day life and one of their most revered articles is the banam, a musical instrument. It reflects the whole man-nature relationship within itself. Although the instrument is always shown in the female shape, it can only be played by a man. The anatomy of the human being is conceived by the Santhals in the various part of the banam. The film looks at different stages in making of the banam, made out of a single wooden log, from the Gulanj Baha or gula cin tree. Small and delicate, it is often planted by the Santhals near their houses, on account of its pretty fragrant flowers, which are used a ornaments. The branches are slender and very fragile and the wood is extremely soft, light and easy to work with.
Along with the rainy season, seeps in the fear of frizzy hair, itchy scalp and hair loss. But a few tweaks in the daily schedule can stop the monsoon from spoiling the fun, says an expert. Here are some tips on how to take care of your hair during
Kolkata: The Fifteenth Finance Commission has taken a serious note of the state’s demand for debt restructuring, so that it doesn’t become “a permanent drag on the economy of Bengal”.The “legacy of the debt overhang” of Bengal has come up as a major issue in the meeting of the Fifteenth Finance Commission, with Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee, Finance minister Amit Mitra and other state government officials at Nabanna Sabhaghar on Tuesday.A small film based on the different initiatives of the Bengal government was screened during the meeting, followed by a detailed presentation and discussion on the state’s financial situation. Also Read – Rain batters Kolkata, cripples normal lifeIn a Press conference after the meeting, the Chief Minister said: “We expect that Finance Commission will consider our demand for debt restructuring or waiver…”N K Singh, the commission chairman, said: “If interest payment on debt forecloses a large part of the government revenues, then of course that is a drag on which they (Bengal government) would like to see a structural solution.””The Finance Commission has taken a serious note of the expectations of the government of Bengal,” he said in the same breath, adding that the commission would explore all possible ways within its mandate to look into the issue. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Mercedes car in Kolkata, 2 pedestrians killedAppreciating the Bengal government’s endeavour in giving a detailed memorandum in advance that helped them to get a clear picture on the state’s specific demands, Singh maintained: “The Bengal government has brought out very forcefully the need for the Finance Commission to look at the legacy issue of the debt overhang…and it could be redressed in a manner so that it doesn’t become a permanent drag on the economy of Bengal.”When asked about its reaction on the state’s demand for debt restructuring, the chairman said: “The views of the Finance Commission will be contained in the recommendations of the commission, which we will submit to the President of India. But a very robust presentation on the overhang of the debt issues was certainly very forcefully brought out both by the Chief Minister formally and in the detailed memorandum which was submitted to us.” The Chief Minister has maintained in the meeting that the last seven years have been challenging for Bengal, as ithas faced the legacy of huge debt burden and has repaid Rs 2.25 lakh crore in interest and principal and in the 2018-19 fiscal, it has to pay Rs 46,000 crore.Highlighting the revenue gap against the projected GST revenue in Bengal that was 33.4 percent in August 2017 and has registered a surplus of 3 percent by March 2018, the Chief Minister has also placed the demand that the share of the states in the divisible pool be increased from 42 to 50 percent and this comes when the revenue deficit grant is of Rs 90,136.48 crore.Singh also said: “We were also assured by the Finance minister that following detailed discussion with CSSO, anydiscrepancy with regard to the key macro-economic features has now been reconciled and it is expected that some time in August, the new figures based on the reconciliation with CSSO would be published.”