The United States Agency for International Development, in collaboration with Liberian Entrepreneurial and Asset Development (LEAD), last week launched an agribusiness initiative to assist Liberian farmers to enter the money economy.The program is designed to help farmers graduate from subsistence farming to commercialization by empowering them to grow their crops successfully and on a larger scale and bring them to the market. The donors will provide loans ranging from LD180,000 to LD500,000 to help vegetable farmers improve upon their agribusinesses. The money will be used to expand their farms by purchasing farming inputs such as implements, seeds, fertilizers and insecticides. The farmers would also be able to employ workers to ease the labor burden and make it possible to expand their acreages. Three counties will initially benefit from the program—Montserrado, Margibi and Nimba.It would be good if, in addition to the funding, a way could be found to further empower these farmers with technical assistance provided by agricultural extension agents. In the absence of these, we wonder if USAID and LEAD could engage a cadre of agricultural technicians to serve this purpose. We confess that this is asking a bit much, since we cannot realistically expect donors to do everything for us. This part of the work should be done by the Ministry of Agriculture, which should be deploying ag agents throughout the country to enlighten and empower farmers with modern techniques and skills. Alas, the Ministry’s extension service across the country seems to be very limited. That is why we think LEAP should go the extra mile.It is sad that the Agriculture Ministry has not kept its pledge, made over three years ago, to have ag extension agents crisscross the country to engage the people in Liberia’s largest work sector—farming.Should LEAD and USAID be able to provide such ag technicians, this would help the farmers to succeed and repay their loans. As these initial farmer succeed, the lending program would be extended to the other counties. There is a wonderful opportunity for urban farming in Montserrado County. Look at all our swamp land all over this county. The Ministries of Agriculture, Lands Mines and Energy and the Land Commission should jointly mark off ALL of these swamp lands and reserve them for farming. Otherwise, they will soon be swallowed up by unscrupulous land grabbers to build houses.PRAY TELL US, WHY SHOULD THE LIBERIAN GOVERNMENT SIT SUPINELY AND PERMIT THIS TO HAPPEN, WHEN WE HAVE A VERITABLE FOOD CRISIS IN THIS COUNTRY? We pray that these three very relevant agencies—Agriculture, Lands and Mines and Land Commission, would get busy and preserve and conserve our swamplands to encourage agricultural production.There is one problem we see in the USAID-LEAD program: the 16% interest rate is too high. We suggest it be reduced to eight percent, in line with what the Central Bank of Liberia is doing in its micro-finance initiatives around the country. This would attract more lenders and make it easier for them to succeed.Share this:Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)
Over 250 persons on Saturday passed a resolution and signed a petition calling on the Government to amend the relevant laws of Guyana and give its no objections to the cultivation of industrial hemp locally.This was done at the Guyana Hemp Association (GHA) national consultation, which was held at the Critchlow Labour College on Saturday to discuss the production of hemp in Guyana. The Association’s objective of producing this herb is to eradicate poverty which will vastly increase employment and build Guyana’s economy, it said.Several presentations were made to the US-based experts on hemp production and legislation.Co-founder of Neurvana, Vijay Doerga, addressing the audience and the US-based experts disclosed that it is important to sensitise people about the herb in order for them to make an informed measurement between the rice and sugar industries and high income potential that hemp can contribute towards the economy.“What we are doing here is sensitising you and letting you know that you were misled decades ago. The western world is greatly adjusting to it and Canada and other countries have become large exporters of hemp. There is the shortage of hemp. I know hemp will do great here because we are people that know agriculture. We are asking the Government to implement hemp to see a turnaround in the economy.”According to Co-Chairman of the GHA, Michael Kirton, a meeting to discuss the production of the product in Guyana with President David Granger is in the pipeline.In attendance at the meeting on Saturday were Co-founder of Neurvana, Clayton Williams; Vice President of Green Acres Team, Stanilav Sharmayey; Guyanese expert on Hemp, Peter Williams and President of the Guyana Hemp Association, Dr Turhane Doerga.
Nigerian President Goodluck Ebele Jonathan has underscored the need for adequate education for Africans if the continent is to remain relevant. “For Africa to remain relevant, we need to adequately educate our people, as it is through education that we can unlock the potential of our youth to enable Africa to compete globally, and create jobs in the new knowledge economy,” the Nigerian leader said. President Jonathan’s comments come as Nigeria prepares to host the 24th World Economic Forum on Africa in Abuja, Nigeria beginning Wednesday of this week.This year’s forum will take place on the theme: Forging Inclusive Growth, Creating Jobs. It takes place just few weeks after the world announced Nigeria as Africa’s biggest economy. Nigeria, which has accumulated over US$70 billion in foreign reserves, is also Africa’s most popular country. More than 900 leaders from business, government, civil society and academia will participate in the meeting on 7-9 May. The meeting convenes against a backdrop of significant economic growth, progress in reducing poverty in most parts of sub-Saharan Africa, but also persistent inequality. This year’s program, according to organizers of the forum, is built on three pillars: Accelerating Society’s Transformation; Deepening Investment Partnerships; and Redesigning Growth Models.In addition to President Jonathan and representatives from his government, other leaders that have confirmed their participation are: Mohamed Larbi Ould Khelifa, President, People’s National Assembly, Algeria; Thomas Yayi Boni, President of Benin; Li Keqiang, Premier of the People’s Republic of China; Daniel Kablan Duncan, Prime Minister of Côte d’Ivoire; John Dramani Mahama, President of Ghana; Uhuru Kenyatta, President of Kenya; Kolo Christophe Laurent Roger, Prime Minister of Madagascar; Paul Kagame, President of Rwanda; Macky Sall, President of Senegal; Jakaya M. Kikwete, President of Tanzania; and Faure Gnassingbé, President of Togo.“Africa’s continued progress depends fundamentally on the ability of its leaders to take the bold decisions necessary to transform the region’s economy and society. By bringing together leaders from politics, business and civil society, we hope the meeting will offer an environment where such decisions can be catalyzed, and where commitment and creativity can be drawn on to build a future fit for all Africans,” said Elsie Kanza, Director, Head of Africa, World Economic Forum.From the broader perspective, Africa’s remarkable growth trajectory is projected to remain above 5 percent in 2014 with West Africa the fastest growing sub-region, representing the continent’s largest business opportunity.Such momentum is a welcome and necessary boon to a region whose youthful population offers the prospects of a significant demographic dividend fuelled by growth in consumer industries, manufacturing and business process outsourcing.Nigeria, sub-Saharan Africa’s largest economy and most populous nation – with over 160 million inhabitants – already plays a crucial role in advancing the continent’s growth; yet it is also emblematic of the challenges of converting natural wealth into solutions that address persistent social challenges.As the foremost gathering on the continent, the 24th World Economic Forum on Africa will bring together regional and global leaders to discuss innovative structural reforms and investments that can sustain the continent’s growth while creating jobs and prosperity for all its citizens.According to the preliminary, Africa’s richest man, Nigerian billionaire and president and chief executive officer of Dangote Group, Mr. Aliko Dangote, will address a topic on redesigning growth models; while the chairman of the executive board and chief executive officer of Heineken Netherlands Jean-Francois Van Bomeer will address a televised session on deepening partnerships. Share this:Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)
Newly appointed Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of the Guyana Sugar Corporation (GuySuCo), Dr Harold Davis, will officially take up the post on Monday.The Agriculture Ministry (MoA), in a statement on Saturday, said Davis is tasked with modernising the three remaining sugar estates, which are the productionAgriculture Minister Noel Holder and new GuySuCo CEO, Dr Harold Daviscentres. This process will entail transforming infrastructure, agricultural and other practices, and retooling the factories at Albion, Blairmont and Uitvlugt. The MoA noted that one of the key focus areas for the new CEO will be to increase the competitiveness of GuySuCo with the production of high value sugars.A precursor to this will be increasing sugarcane yields to beyond 70 tonnes cane per hectare. A land development programme has already re-commenced under Dr Davis’s watch as Agriculture Director, and this is being conducted in a very technically sound manner. In addition to attracting high quality skills to support the modernisation of GuySuCo, improving the capacity of the workforce through training and development is a high priority item on Davis’s agenda.“In terms of the process for achieving his goals and objectives, focus will be on the establishment of a sound, highly skilled management team with a range of relevant expertise. The production centres – estates — are the core of the business, and strong teams will be built around providing the requisite support to achieve and surpass the 147,000 tonnes production target by 2021,” the statement related.The MoA has said that in an effort to create and deliver more value, co-generation facilities will be constructed and the factory at Albion Estate will be upgraded to produce plantation white sugar. Additionally, consideration will be given to the expansion of production at Blairmont Estate to accommodate increased production of direct consumption sugars, among other things.Feasibility studies on co-generation have been completed for two factories, and a further study will be conducted on the third estate. The first co-generation project would commence on Albion Estate within the planned period, the statement indicated. This approach is guided by GuySuCo’s new ‘Sustainable Business Model’, which focuses on achieving a triple bottom line (TBL) – economic/financial, environmental and social — and ensures more accountability in all three areas, while adding more structure around becoming a more environmentally sensitive business as well as cost reduction.Davis takes over the reins from Bhim, who was one of the members of the Interim Management Committee (IMC), established in 2015.Meanwhile, a new GuySuCo board is yet to be named. The life of the previous board expired since February of this year, and a new board with Special Purpose Unit (SPU) Head Colvin-Heath London was gazetted. It however subsequently emerged that the old board was still in effect amid reports of a split at Cabinet over the new board’s composition. There has since been much confusion over the matter.Over 5000 sugar workers from Enmore, Rose Hall and Skeldon were dismissed from their jobs following the downsizing of the sugar industry.
SACRAMENTO – Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger has “reluctantly” agreed with President George W. Bush’s request to send California National Guard troops to the U.S.-Mexico border to help federal agents, he said Thursday. Schwarzenegger said he decided to comply with the federal request because he is concerned about border security, including terrorists, undocumented immigrants and drug smugglers trying to sneak into California. “It’s not my preference to send the National Guard to do this mission,” he said. “But under the circumstances, (we are doing it) to help the federal government to secure our borders because that is our No. 1 concern. I’m extremely concerned about potential terrorists sneaking across that border.” The 1,000 Guard troops will be unarmed most of the time and deployed in a support role – building roads, repairing vehicles and operating surveillance cameras – rather than directly patrolling the border and detaining smugglers and illegal immigrants. “With fire season staring us in the eyes, there should be no rush to send California’s National Guard to the border for an unfocused mission designed to provide political cover for the Bush administration instead of a permanent solution to border security,” Nu ez said in a prepared statement. Both candidates for the Democratic gubernatorial nomination, Controller Steve Westly and Treasurer Phil Angelides, agreed with the criticism on similar grounds, linking Schwarzenegger politically to Bush and saying the troops are needed elsewhere to respond to natural disasters. At a state legislative hearing Wednesday, lawmakers expressed concerns that the state had not fully studied the impact of deploying the troops and what effect it would have if they are needed in case of a disaster elsewhere in the state. The state Office of Emergency Services said it would run through scenarios to determine the possible impact on disaster response. Schwarzenegger said the costs, estimated at $6 million to $8 million per month, will be fully reimbursed by the federal government. The troops could be sent to the border as early as July 15, and the agreement calls for them to withdraw by Dec. 31, 2008, even if the federal government has not met its goal of hiring 6,000 new Border Patrol agents by then. Guard officials said the troops will be asked to volunteer for the border duty, rather than be ordered, and they have already identified 700 volunteers. While the federal government has suggested two- to three-week rotations, Schwarzenegger said that does not make sense to him, comparing it to rotating surgeons in and out of an operation every two to three minutes. Instead, the majority of California National Guard troops will be asked to rotate every six to 12 months, though a smaller number of specialized units might rotate every two to three weeks. National Guard officials said the force overall has about 20,000 troops, including 2,200 stationed overseas. With the 1,000 going to the border – to join about 145 that have previously been assigned to the border region to assist with customs, drug enforcement and the Border Patrol – Guard officials said they feel they have enough remaining troops to handle a natural disaster or terrorist attack. email@example.com (916) 446-6723160Want local news?Sign up for the Localist and stay informed Something went wrong. Please try again.subscribeCongratulations! You’re all set! AD Quality Auto 360p 720p 1080p Top articles1/5READ MORE11 theater productions to see in Southern California this week, Dec. 27-Jan. 2Their presence is expected to free up more U.S. Border Patrol agents from those support roles, allowing them to perform more direct border enforcement duties. The governor’s decision comes more than two weeks after Bush asked four border states to deploy 6,000 Guard troops to help agents. The president has the power to federalize the troops and order such a move but has so far asked states to voluntarily cooperate. Bush’s request has met with resistance from California lawmakers, who expressed concerns it would take Guard troops away from critical duties such as responding to natural disasters and would create a potentially dangerous militarization of the border. Schwarzenegger had also expressed logistical concerns but said Thursday that most of his questions have now been resolved. Assembly Speaker Fabian Nu ez, D-Los Angeles, disagreed with the governor’s decision.
DONEGAL manager Jim McGuinness gathers his troops for training tonight – hoping that two of the county stars recover in time for this Sunday’s Ulster SFC Final at Clones.Rory Kavanagh and Kevin Rafferty, who have been paired together in the recent wins over Cavan and Tyrone, are set to train with the Donegal squad are picking up injuries in club action last week.Kavanagh has an ankle injury, while his St Eunan’s club-mate Rafferty is working his way back from a groin strain. McGuinness said today: “The lads haven’t managed to train with us since the club Championship last Sunday week.“We train (on Thursday) so we’ll have to wait and see what the fellas can do then. At that stage, we’ll make a decision based on the medical evidence available.“It’s hard to know (if they’ll make it). We’re just dependent on the players themselves and the medical team. Obviously they’re in a race against time.”McGuinness is definitely without the services of defender Leo McLoone who suffered a double fracture of his eye socket in a club game earlier this month and underwent surgery in Derry earlier this week. Donegal’s final opponents Derry are expected to announce their team tonight.* Donegaldaily.com will have more on the final build-up laterGAA ULSTER FINAL: McGUINNESS WAITS ON RORY AND KEVIN was last modified: July 16th, 2011 by gregShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window) Tags:DerrydonegalGAAJim McGuinnessRory Kavanagh
Congratulations: Congratulations to Abaigh Stokes and Eimer Clerkin who have been selected for the under 14 County Panel, and also to John Campbell who has been called up to the County Minor panel. Well done to all of you and best of luck with your respective county squads in 2013 from all at the Club. Congratulations also to the U12 Hurlers who were victorious in the U12 Donegal/Derry League on Sunday, well done to all involved.Poker Tournament: Buncrana GAA are holding a Poker evening this Friday 22nd February at 8.00pm. The tournament is open to all levels of ability and a great night is guaranteed! Proceeds will go towards the purchase of much needed equipment for our juvenile hurling and football squads. €30 with €10 rebuy/top up. Please feel free to bring your own refreshments, tea and coffee will be provided. Boxing Night: Don’t miss the ‘Clash Of The Clubs’ on Saturday 9th March – For one night only Buncrana GAA and the Illies will be clashing in the ring to raise funds for both clubs. The boxers are training extremely hard in preparation for this event and some great fights are expected. Much is expected of Shane ‘Yank’ McDaid, who has enlisted Irish Olympic Coach Billy Walsh for one-to-one sessions. Tickets are priced €20 and are available from club members. Fights begin at 8:30pm with Disco to follow.Membership: Club membership for the upcoming year can now be paid. Adult membership is €100 (including weekly lotto entry), Student membership is €50 and child membership is €20 (€50 for 3 children or more). Dates of registration nights for juvenile members will be confirmed soon, and all information will be made available through facebook, twitter and the club notes. For further details please contact Grainne Soal at firstname.lastname@example.org. Senior and Reserve Football: Buncrana recorded a convincing win over Glenelly St. Joseph’s in the Ulster Intermediate League on Sunday. Despite the absence of a number of players, including Ryan Bradley, Odhran Doherty, Peter McLaughlin and Patrick McMyler, the home side dominated from start to finish. Minor players Caolan McGonigle, Stephen Doherty, Bruce Waldron, Darragh O’Connor and John Campbell continue to show good signs of progression, while experienced campaigners Paul McGonigle, Simon McGrory and Adrian McColgan performed well. The final group game will be next weekend away to Glack O’Connor’s from Derry. Training will continue each Tuesday and Friday at 7.30pm and on Sundays at 11.00am. All new and returning players who are over the age of 16 and wish to play in Division 2 this year are invited to attend.Ladies Football: The Senior Ladies started their season off with a challenge game against Malin on Sunday 10th and recorded a very convincing victory. The Malin team were a weakened outfit compared to their squad of last year, having lost players to Urris and Carndonagh, who are both fielding their own senior ladies teams in 2013. However the Buncrana Ladies showed huge improvement from last year and the benefits of their pre-season training was evident both in terms of fitness and support play. There were some good individual performances thoughout the team, with many new young players being introduced and giving a good account of themselves. Training continues on Monday and Wednesday nights and the squad eagerly awaits the start of the League and Championship campaign.Girls Football: Girls football training is on Monday night at 7.00pm sharp. Open to all girls from the ages of 9 to 16 years of age. New players are also welcome. Please bring your own water bottle.U5 and U6 Gaelic Games: Under 5s and 6s sessions continues on Saturday mornings at 11.15am sharp in Crana College. The sessions are based on GAA Fundamentals; a Croke Park initiative based on European wide research aimed at bettering your child’s coordination (including hand eye) balance, agility and basic fitness in a fun filled environment.U8 Hurling: U8 Hurling will continue on Wednesday 16th January at 5.30-6.30pm in Crana College. Newcomers are always welcome to come along and learn the basic skills of Hurling in a fun, safe environment.U8 Football: U8 Football will continue on Friday at 6.30pm, new members are always welcome.U12 Football: Congratulations to the U12 Hurlers and coaches following their recent win of the Donegal/Derry League, another excellent win for our young Hurlers. U12 training started back on Tuesday 12th of February at 7.00pm. The training times are as follows: Tuesday 7.00-8.00pm and Friday 7.00-8.30pm. Mouthguards are now compulsory for all training as well as matches. Newcomers are always welcome to come along and learn the basic skills of Gaelic football in a fun, safe environment.Stewards: Anyone who is interested in stewarding matches in MacCumhaill Pairc is asked to email club secretary Grainne Soal email@example.com. Referees Courses: A Referees beginner course will be held in Jackson’s Hotel, Ballybofey on Saturday 23rd February at 10am. Referees refresher course for senior and underage, both hurling and football will be held in Jackson’s Hotel Ballybofey on Thursday 7th March at 7-30pm. All clubs are asked to be represented at both of these courses, for further details please contact Referees Administrator Pat Walsh on 0879142748 / 0749842514.Lotto: The winning numbers in the lotto draw, which took place on Tuesday 12th February in O’Flaherty’s Bar on the Main Street, are as follows: 5-18-29-32There was no jackpot winner this week, however prizes of €20 go to each of the following participants:Darragh Lyons, Aghilly Brigid Trodden, 27 Castle ParkBarry Gallagher, c/o BingoBreedge Doherty, Rockfield TerraceBarry Stephenson, BuncranaClub Notes: Anyone who would like to receive a copy of the weekly club notes should email Oisín at firstname.lastname@example.org to be included on the mailing list. If you have any items which you think should be included in the club’s weekly notes, please email Oisín at email@example.com by 6pm on each Sunday for consideration. To keep up to date with all the latest goings-on, please join us on www.facebook.com/buncranagaa or www.twitter.com/buncranagaa @buncranagaaGAELIC GAMES: BUNCRANA GAA CLUB NEWS was last modified: February 17th, 2013 by BrendaShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window)Tags:GAELIC GAMES: BUNCRANA GAA CLUB NEWS
Facebook is Becoming Less Personal and More Pro… Personalization In AggregationNot only does Feedtrace collect tweeted links by overall popularity, like Tweetmeme, but it customizes what links it shows you by comparing to ones that you yourself have tweeted. It uses a ranking system, ranking each link according to how recently it was posted, the “credibility” of the user according to their following/follower ratio, and the number of tweets and retweets.In addition to aggregating the most popular links Twitter-wide, you can also choose to login to the service with your Twitter account and have it examine only those links added by people you follow. We think this might be a real, distinguishing feature. There are a thousand ways to find out what everyone else is talking about. This lets you find out what the people you are following are talking about.You can also restrict Feedtrace to look just at a single website, to see what people are talking about the most. This can be a great tool, not only to quickly skim for what people really like right now on a website, but if you have a website yourself, it’s another way of measuring your own success.What’s The Buzz?The final feature we want to note is that the you can also take a look at who is saying what about the current link you’ve chosen to visit. By clicking the “buzz” tab on Feedtrace, you can see all of the tweets related to the current page. Feedtrace also lets you interact with those users, allowing you to retweet, favorite and reply from directly within the sidebar.The program was just launched last week and is still officially in beta, but from what we’ve seen we’re excited to see more. According to its blog, a new version “will incorporate new personalization options and improved navigation” and should be released before the end of February. Guide to Performing Bulk Email Verification mike melanson Every day, hundreds of tweets fly past our eyes with links to important articles, meaningless drivel and the occasional self-promotion. There’s little, if any, way to tell what’s important and what’s not. Feedtrace has stepped in to try to fill this void and let you know what people are linking to that you might care about.For ways to harness the beast that is our Twitter stream, Feedtrace may have just stepped in as an addition to the daily toolbox. How It WorksFeedtrace works as a Twitter overlay, of sorts. You don’t look at your Twitter stream, but instead at the Feedtrace sidebar where you find your list of ranked links. As you navigate the links from this sidebar, Feedtrace steps out of the way and minimizes to the side of the window. It’s a browsing companion for navigating what people are linking to on Twitter. Tags:#Real-Time Web#twitter#web The Dos and Don’ts of Brand Awareness Videos Related Posts A Comprehensive Guide to a Content Audit
Tags:#Amazon#App Store#Apple#apps#Appstore for Android#Kindle Fire#lawsuits Role of Mobile App Analytics In-App Engagement What it Takes to Build a Highly Secure FinTech … Why IoT Apps are Eating Device Interfaces Apple and Amazon have settled their differences over the term “app store,” putting an end to a dispute that began when Apple sued Amazon in 2011 over the e-commerce king’s use of the term for the store that it uses to sell mobile applications for its Kindle Fire tablets. Today, U.S. District Court judge Phyllis Hamilton in Oakland, Calif. agreed to dismiss the case. According to a report from Reuters, Apple agreed to drop the case in order to avoid a counterclaim from Amazon. Apple had originally claimed trademark violation and false advertising over Amazon’s use of the App Store name. “We no longer see a need to pursue our case,” Apple spokeswoman Kristin Huguet told Reuters. “With more than 900,000 apps and 50 billion downloads, customers know where they can purchase their favorite apps.”Amazon’s application store is technically called the “Amazon Appstore For Android.” It sells and markets apps specifically for its Kindle Fire tablets, which compete with Apple’s iPad. Apple’s version is just the “App Store” on iPhones and iPads; it also lives as a feature of Apple’s desktop iTunes software. Amazon had claimed that the “app store” term had become generic and was thus safe to use. Apple’s App Store turns five years old on Wednesday, July 10. The Amazon Appstore for Android was launched on March 22, 2011. dan rowinski Related Posts The Rise and Rise of Mobile Payment Technology
TweetPinShare0 Shares RIO DE JANEIRO (AP) — Matteo Aicardi is tough to guard in normal situations in water polo. When Italy plays with the man advantage, he becomes even more dangerous.Same for Filip Filipovic and Serbia, Ioannis Fountoulis and Greece, and the list goes on and on.The importance of man-up situations, long one of the most critical areas in the Olympics’ first team sport, is on full display right now in Rio. Through almost two days of the men’s tournament, there have been three ties and four one-goal games — making every chance to attack with an extra player a very precious commodity.“Extra man, in this kind of sport, the last few years, this is the most important moment in the match,” Aicardi said after he scored four times in Italy’s 11-8 victory over France on Monday.Water polo has three types of fouls: ordinary, exclusion and penalty. The majority of whistles during a typical match are for ordinary infractions, which result in a simple free throw. But intentionally kicking or striking an opponent, disrespecting a referee or using foul language are among a group of actions that can prompt an exclusion, a player being sent off for a maximum of 20 seconds. The player also can return after a goal or change of possession.“It’s important, the 6-on-5, but it’s important for defense, because when you lose control on defense it leads to easy goals and easy goals in these close games, you pay at the end,” Italy coach Alessandro Campagna said.Exclusions often lead to momentum swings, either through scoring on offense or coming up with a big stop on the defensive side. Exclusions also can help wear down opponents, since it requires field players and goaltenders to work extra hard to protect the cage while their teammate waits anxiously in the re-entry area in the corner near his country’s bench.“I think extra-man attack and defense makes or breaks games,” Australia driver Richie Campbell said. “If you got solid defense in extra man and you’re shutting them out, then it puts a lot of mental pressure on them as well as the physical pressure.”Italy and France were tied at 1 before Christian Presciutti and Alessandro Velotto scored consecutive extra-man goals, making it 3-1 with 2:20 left in the first. After Thibaut Simon’s penalty shot trimmed Italy’s lead to 8-6 in the third, Aicardi helped the silver medalists from London regain control with a goal from in close right after Igor Kovacevic’s exclusion had ended.Aicardi played with a white mask after he suffered a broken nose during Saturday’s 9-8 win over Spain.“It worked,” he said. “I faced one punch maybe and one shot in my face, but everything is OK.”Greece and Serbia combined for nine extra-man goals in a 9-9 tie in the first match of the second day. Australia came up empty on a couple of extra-man trips in the fourth period of its 9-9 tie against Hungary. Blai Guell Mallarach’s man-up goal with 4:11 left proved to be the difference in Spain’s 10-7 victory over the winless United States.